We talk in the book about different kinds of crises and how to handle them (Chapter 9). When a crisis is caused by organization mechanical problems that are unforeseeable then the organization can react in a particular way. But the cause of the problem needs to be carefully examined. Was it truly mechanical in Carnival’s case or is there human error or management action (or inaction) at fault? When the same problem happens twice it suggests that both human error and management inaction is afoot. What counsel would you be giving Carnival now?